Journal of Dental Hygiene Science : eISSN 2233-7679

Table 2

Comparison Before and After COVID-19 of Handwashing

Variable Before COVID-19 After COVID-19


Never Sometimes Almost Always χ2 Never Sometimes Almost Always χ2
Gender 1,500.00a 184.67a
Boys 3,698 (12.39) 9,432 (31.61) 9,730 (32.61) 6,981 (23.39) 3,034 (10.70) 7,102 (25.05) 8,557 (30.18) 9,660 (34.07)
Girls 5,188 (18.89) 10,941 (39.84) 7,495 (27.29) 3,838 (13.98) 3,384 (12.73) 7,598 (28.57) 7,514 (28.25) 8,099 (30.45)
School type 612.82a 1,600.00a
Middle school 3,818 (12.99) 9,838 (33.48) 9,419 (32.05) 6,309 (21.47) 2,562 (8.85) 6,552 (22.62) 8,612 (29.74) 11,235 (38.79)
High school 5,068 (18.15) 10,535 (37.73) 7,806 (27.96) 4,510 (16.15) 3,856 (14.84) 8,148 (31.35) 7,459 (28.70) 6,524 (25.10)
Academic achievement 114.25a 167.10a
Low 2,892 (15.95) 6,687 (36.89) 5,382 (29.69) 3,165 (17.46) 2,205 (12.10) 5,271 (28.93) 5,370 (29.48) 5,371 (29.48)
Middle 2,444 (14.18) 6,198 (35.96) 5,414 (31.41) 3,178 (18.44) 1,754 (10.58) 4,431 (26.72) 4,954 (29.87) 5,446 (32.84)
High 3,550 (16.18) 7,488 (34.12) 6,429 (29.30) 4,476 (20.40) 2,459 (12.21) 4,998 (24.81) 5,747 (28.53) 6,942 (34.46)
The areas of residence 94.09a 28.79a
Rural 574 (12.76) 1,454 (32.33) 1,432 (31.84) 1,037 (23.06) 418 (9.62) 1,166 (26.83) 1,345 (30.95) 1,417 (32.60)
Small city 4,361 (15.87) 9,847 (35.85) 8,277 (30.13) 4,986 (18.15) 3,193 (11.83) 7,215 (26.74) 7,741 (28.69) 8,832 (32.73)
Large city 3,951 (15.60) 9,072 (35.81) 7,516 (29.67) 4,796 (18.93) 2,807 (11.88) 6,319 (26.75) 6,985 (29.57) 7,510 (31.79)
Residential type 5.9a 13.10a
With family 8,382 (15.45) 19,268 (35.51) 16,359 (30.15) 10,258 (18.90) 6,118 (11.69) 13,939 (26.64) 15,287 (29.21) 16,988 (32.46)
Without family 504 (16.60) 1,105 (36.40) 866 (28.52) 561 (18.48) 300 (11.47) 761 (29.09) 784 (29.97) 771 (29.47)
Family economic status 638.62a 285.21a
Low 1,407 (19.17) 2,715 (36.98) 2,047 (27.88) 1,172 (15.97) 939 (13.02) 2,076 (28.79) 2,021 (28.02) 2,176 (30.17)
Middle 4,476 (16.30) 10,371 (37.77) 8,190 (29.83) 4,420 (16.10) 3,259 (12.35) 7,422 (28.12) 7,836 (29.69) 7,880 (29.85)
High 3,003 (13.34) 7,287 (32.38) 6,988 (31.05) 5,227 (23.23) 2,220 (10.40) 5,202 (24.38) 6,214 (29.12) 7,703 (36.10)

aData was analysed by chi-square test.

J Dent Hyg Sci 2022;22:171-9 https://doi.org/10.17135/jdhs.2022.22.3.171
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