Journal of Dental Hygiene Science : eISSN 2233-7679

Table 5

Results of the Intervention of Studies

Author (year) Duration (frequency) Participants Research institute Study design Intervention Meaeurement tools Outcome
Lee, 2009 3 months (Exercise: about 24 times, management: 3 times, Education: 1 times)
<Oral function improvement exercise: twice a week, oral hygiene management: once a month, group oral hygiene education: 1 times>
Researcher University of the elderly NCGPPD Theoretical education: oral health education (oral health knowledge, teeth brushing method, floss method)
Practical training: oral function improvement gymnastics (muscular exercise, tongue muscle exercise, lip muscle exercise, stimulating salivary glands, vocal exercises), teeth brushing training, dental flossing training
Expert management: scaling
Real condition of oral hygiene: O’Leary index
Oral examination
Repeat deglutition test: RSST
Salivary effusion examination: shimmerstrip
Pronunciation test: in order of patakara pronunciation
Stretching cheeks: whether your left and right cheeks can swell up by closing your lips
Amount of opening: electronic ruler
Oral health-related quality of life: OHIP-14
Clinical indicators (plant residue, coated tongue*, degree of dirty teeth/denture*, dental plaque*, number of repeat deglutition*, amount of saliva*, the amount of opening*, stretching cheeks at the same time**)
Self-efficacy (oral health-related quality of life*)
Kim et al., 2010 3 months (90 times)
<Caregivers who have completed training take oral care once a day for 3 months>
Caregiver Long-term care hospital NCGPPD Practical training: teeth brushing (rotation method, tongue brushing), management of artificial teeth Dental plaque: O’Leary index
Oral examination
Clinical indicators (dental plaque*, coated tongue*, denture hygiene*)
Bok, 2010 6 months (NR) Dentist, dental hygienist Home care elderly, nursing home, long-term care center OPPD Theoretical education: oral health education, teeth brushing training, denture care training, interdental care training, oral counseling, halitosis management, stomatitis management, denture cleaning
Practical training: oral mucous membrane massage, oral muscle massage, tongue exercise
Expert management: professional teeth brushing, fluoride application
Coated tongue: divide the entire tongue into 9 parts to determine whether the tongue is attached
Salivation rate: KISO WeT Tester
Oral environment management ability: PHP
Halitosis: BB checker
Denture hygiene: the number of schuber’s denture hygiene
Oral health care survey
Clinical indicators (coated tongue**, denture hygiene**)
Oral health behavior (number of teeth brushing, number of denture washed, the number of oral supplements increased, oral environment management ability**)
Kim, (2012) 3 months (24 times)
<Oral health and oral exercise program education twice a week for 30 minutes>
Dental hygienist Long-term care center, long-term care hospital NCGPPD Theoretical education: oral health education (the importance of oral health and oral function in the elderly)
Practical training: oral exercise program (preparatory exercise, oral opening and closing, tongue exercise, neck exercise, tongue exercise, masticatory strengthen exercise, cheek exercise, vocal exercises, deglutition strengthen exercise, stimulation of saliva exercise, finish exercise)
Halitosis: mBA-21 Oral Gas Detector
Oral microbes: Streptococcus mutans separate culture
Salivation rate: measurement method of non-stimulating saliva secretion
Maximum opening: electronic ruler
Oral exchange exercise: in order of patakara pronunciation
OHIP-14
Clinical indicators (oral microbes*, halitosis*, the amount of opening*, salivation rate*, oral interaction exercise*, restriction of jaw function*, subjective xerostomia score*)
Oral health behavior (spontaneous behavior to prepare for xerostomia*)
Self-efficacy (oral health-related quality of life*)
Kim et al., 2012 4 weeks (84 times)
<3 times a day for 4 weeks for 10 to 60 minutes>
Nurse, nursing care worker Long-term care center NCGPPD Expert management: maintain cognitive function, maintain proper intake, maintain sitting posture, suction prevention Total time for deglutition: electromotive forceps Clinical indicators (deglutition function*)
Lee et al., 2012 6 weeks (4 times)
<Revisiting 3 times every 2 weeks>
<Individual oral gymnastics will be held 3 times a week>
Researcher Senior center NCGPPD Theoretical education: oral health education, oral hygiene management method education, teeth brushing training
Practical training: individual oral exercise (opening and closing exercises, jaw muscle exercise, lip muscle exercise, salivary gland stimulation exercise, vocal exercises)
Expert management: denture cleaning, Watanabe brushing teeth
Oral examination
Plaque index: O’Leary index
Coated tongue index: divide the entire tongue into 9 parts to determine whether the tongue is attached
Repeat function: RSST
Salivation rate: KISO WeT Tester
The amount of opening: electronic ruler
Oral health-related quality of life: OHIP-14
Clinical indicators (dental plaque index*, coated tongue*, number of repeat deglutition*, amount of saliva*, amount of opening**)
Self-efficacy (oral health-related quality of life*)
Cho et al., 2013 8 weeks (4 times) Researcher General hospital OPPD Practical training: interdental brushing (demonstration practice)
Expert management: professional teeth brushing (Watanabe brushing teeth)
Gingival bleeding: GBI
Dental plaque adhesion degree: PHP
Clinical indicators (dental plaque*, gingival bleeding index*)
Bang, 2014 8 weeks (24 times)
<3 times a week for 30 minutes>
Researcher Long-term care center NCGPPD Practical training: deglutition movement program (exercise: oral exercise, expiratory muscle strength exercise; maneuver: effort deglutition, Mendelsohn maneuver) Screening test for deglutition disorder: GUSS
Deglutition symptom questionnaire: SSQ
Tongue pressure: IOPI
Clinical indicators (screening test for deglutition disorder**, questionnaire score of deglutition symptom*, tongue pressure*)
Kim et al., 2015 7 weeks (3 times)
<Theory and practical training once every two weeks, last week-evaluation>
Investigator, guardian Senior center NCGPPD Theoretical education: oral disease, xerostomia
Practical training: teeth brushing (correct teeth brushing), management of artificial teeth (denture care demonstration practice), oral exercise (simple oral exercise, active oral exercise)
Dental health behaviors: OHB index
Gingivitis index: GI
Dental plaque: QHI
Educational tool: Qscan
Clinical indicators (dental plaque*, gingivitis index*)
Oral health behavior (dental health behaviors*)
Park, 2015 5 weeks (5 times)
<Once a week>
<Do oral exercise 5 times a day>
Professional instructor Senior center OPPD Practical training: oral exercise program (a e i o u training, racukapacha training, facial muscle training, healthy breathing training, stimulating salivary glands, tongue muscle training, tongue stick training) The amount of opening: electronic ruler
Effect of improving pronunciation skills: in order of racukapacha pronunciation
Clinical indicators (maximum opening*, racukapacha pronunciation speed*)
Kim, 2016 2 months (8 times)
<Twice a week for 2 months>
Dental hygienist Long-term care center NCGPPD Theoretical education: training before the program (the importance of oral health and oral function, types of oral function improvement exercises)
Practical training: oral exercise (preparatory exercise, oral opening and closing, tongue stretching, cheek exercise, neck stretching, tongue exercise, masticatory exercise, vocal exercises, deglutition exercise, finish exercise)
Oral wettability: oral water meter
Mouth muscle strength: retremeter
Occlusal strength: oak zalposme
Deglutition strength: RSST
Clinical indicators (oral wettability**, mouth muscle strength**, deglutition strength**, occlusal strength**)
Lee et al., 2016 12 weeks (6 times,12 times)
<Expert hygiene management: ability to carry out daily life less than 75 points-twice a week, 75 points or higher-once a week; Education: 2 times>
Nursing care worker, dental hygienist Long-term care center NCGPPD Theoretical education: the importance of oral care, elderly oral problems
Practical training: brushing teeth method (rotation method, Bass, method, composite method, tongue cleaning), directions for using oral supplements, Watanabe brushing teeth, teeth brushing, mouth muscle massage, salivary massage, oral health education, oral supplements
Dental plaque: O’Leary index
Halitosis: refres halitosis measuring instrument
Coated tongue: winkel tongue coating index
Salivation rate: swap method
Clinical indicators (dental plaque*, halitosis**, coated tongue**, salivation rate*)
Lee et al., 2016 3 weeks (self: 3 times, expert: 9 times)
<Self: once a week; Expert: third a week>
Self: researcher
Expert: expert
University of the elderly, community welfare center NCGPPD Theoretical education: oral muscle training
Expert management: oral muscle training (oral exercise: oral muscles and tongue stimulation+mouth muscle massage: mouth muscle relaxation, stimulation of saliva)
Salivation rate: spitting method
Subjective xerostomia score: interview survey
Clinical indicators (self–c expert–salivation rate**, subjective xerostomia score**)
Jang et al,, 2016 6 weeks (3 times)
<Once every two weeks for 30 minutes>
Researcher Community welfare center NCGPPD Theoretical education: the importance of managing artificial teeth, caution when using dentures
Practical training: management of artificial teeth(demonstration practice)
Satisfaction with dentures, oral health-related characteristic: interview survey
Oral health-related quality of life: OHIP-14
Clinical indicators (halitosis degree score*, dryness in my mouth*)
Oral health behavior (number of denture washed*, subjective oral health status*)
Oral health recognition (interest in oral health*)
Self-efficacy (satisfaction with dentures*, oral health-related quality of life*)
Hong et al., 2016 6 weeks (12 times)
<Twice a week for 30 minutes>
Researcher Long-term care center RCGPPD Practical training: teeth brushing education using recall therapy, teeth brushing education using word completion, teeth brushing education using visual ignition, teeth brushing education using auditory ignition Oral health behavior: survey
Dental plaque: PHP
Gingival bleeding: GBI
Clinical indicators (dental plaque*, gingival bleeding index*)
Oral health behavior (subjective health status score*, teeth brushing effort degree*)
Jang, 2017 4 weeks (8 times)
<Twice a week>
Experimental group 1: dental hygienist
Experimental group 2: nursing care worker
Long-term care center NCGPPD Theoretical education: oral function improvement gymnastics (oral exercise), oral environment management method (Watanabe brushing teeth), tongue cleaning, denture cleaning and management method Oral wettability: oral water meter
The amount of opening: electronic ruler
The amount of opening: retremeter
Deglutition strength: RSST
Oral environment evaluation: mBA-21 Oral Gas Detector
Clinical indicators (Experimental group 1: oral wettability*, amount of opening*, mouth muscle strength*, deglutition strength*, halitosis*, oral function score*, oral environment score*, oral health score*; Experimental group 2: oral wettability*, amount of opening*, mouth muscle strength*, deglutition strength*, halitosis*, oral function score *, oral environment score**, oral health score*)
Han, 2017 4 weeks (4 times)
<Once a week>
Researcher Long-term home care hospital OPPD Theoretical education: systemic disease for the elderly, correct teeth brushing. management of artificial teeth, directions for using oral supplements, oral exercise, gingiva massage Comparison of the number of remaining teeth: oral examination
Coated tongue: divide the entire tongue into 9 parts to determine whether the tongue is attached
Xerostomia, halitosis subjective symptom test, self-oral management status survey: interview survey
Oral microbes: sabouraud dextrose agar culture medium
Clinical indicators (coated tongue*, comparison of residual teeth*, symptom of halitosis before and after education*, oral microbes**)
Kim et al., 2018 4 weeks (4 times)
<Once a week for 60 minutes>
Researcher, assistant Senior welfare center, senior center NCGPPD Theoretical education: oral structure, oral function, xerostomia, nutrition care
Practical training: teeth brushing (correct teeth brushing demonstration practice), oral supplements (Interdental brush, dental floss demonstration practice), oral exercise (demonstration practice), salivary massage (demonstration practice), mouth wash (demonstration practice)
Xerostomia, salivary effusion: measurement of saliva secretion using
Oral health-related quality of life: OHIP-14
Clinical indicators (xerostomia**, salivation rate*)
Self-efficacy (oral health-related quality of life**)
Moon, 2018 8 weeks (16 times)
<Twice a week>
Researcher Long-term care center NCGPPD Theoretical education: oral health education
Practical training: teeth brushing, salivary massage
Dental plaque: O’Leary index
Oral wettability: oral water meter
Halitosis: mBA-21 Oral Gas Detector
Clinical indicators (dental plaque*, halitosis*, oral wettability*)
Oh, 2018 4 weeks (4 times)
<Once a week>
Researcher Senior center, University of the elderly NCGPPD Theoretical education: oral health education (necessity of oral health care for the elderly, the importance of oral health
Practical training: oral exercise (oral opening and closing exercise, lip muscle exercise, vocal exercises, tongue exercise, cheek exercise, neck exercise), salivary massage (stimulating parotid gland, stretching parotid gland lower muscles, stimulating sublingual gland, stimulating the root of the tongue)
Salivary effusion and PH: saliva-check BUFFER Clinical indicators (salivary effusion and PH*)
Im, 2020 4 weeks (12 times)
<3 times a week for 20 minutes>
Researcher Long-term care hospital NCGPPD Theoretical education: the necessity of oral care and introduction education
Practical training: teeth brushing training (rotation method), denture care training, oral exercise (watch and follow the video)
Xerostomia: interview survey
Halitosis: Tanita
Oral health-related quality of life: OHIP-14
Cinical indicators (oral health*, xerostomia*, halitosis*)
Self-efficacy (oral health-related quality of life*)

NCGPPD: non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design, OPPD: one group pretest-posttest design, RCGPPD: randomized control group pretest-posttest design.

*p<0.01, **p<0.05.

J Dent Hyg Sci 2021;21:199-212 https://doi.org/10.17135/jdhs.2021.21.4.199
© 2021 J Dent Hyg Sci